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Graduate Degree - Cybersecurity : Threats and Defenses


Cybersecurity is concerned with the security and integrity of all the interconnected electronic devices that form our current modern life, from large companies to individuals.

Critical installations including servers, industrial automation, nuclear power stations, cloud computing facilities, and even the basic infrastructure of the internet itself are under constant attack.

Stories of companies being harassed by viruses and malware are frequent; huge amounts of money can easily be stolen, and valuable infrastructure pirated in a few seconds.  Often this requires virtually no investment or risk on the part of attackers, which range from individuals to hostile state-sponsored agencies.

Closer to home, everyone now uses smartphones and computers, but we are also using more and more communicating "smart" objects in our everyday lives.  Connected to the internet, these essentially render the concrete walls of our homes and businesses as transparent and fragile as glass; every citizen's privacy and way of life is at stake.

The internet culture of rapid development and innovation encourages us (indeed, virtually forces us) to release products and systems that prioritise functionality over safety.  We rush to meet new needs and markets, without the time and resources required to ensure that products are safe against current attacks, let alone future hacking techniques and threat scenarios.

Reaching a universal state of security seems impossible, but the problems of security are universal: using your laptop and protecting your own data; enabling and protecting internet access; ensuring the privacy and integrity of communications between individuals and businesses; indeed, even simply ensuring that we are connecting to the service that we think we are, and not a hostile impostor.  The technical solutions to these problems involve the methods of modern cryptography.

While the fundamental notions of security (including concepts like 'protection', access restrictions, establishing and verifying identities, and managing and transmitting authority) are common across all sorts of contexts, the reality is that there is no unique way to set up or use connected systems.  The simplicity of our expectations as users and designers is confounded by the ultimate complexity and diversity of computer, network, and data architectures.  This dialogue between the absolutes of security and the diversity of everyday experiences is at the heart of cybersecurity research and practice.

The Cybersecurity: Threats and Defenses program is based on the École Polytechnique's trademark interdisciplinary approach, and provides you with necessary expertise in all aspects of cybersecurity -- be it hardware or software.  It is a complete program for future experts in computer security, and for all activities in which protecting data or privacy is essential. Adapting to new threats and finding new defenses will be your day-to-day challenge.

There is a large gamut of jobs in cybersecurity. For a small list: security auditor, controller or evaluator; security architect; secure systems developer; penetration test expert; security consultant; information system security manager.



The first part is concerned with building a common technical background for cybersecurity; adding security to this will be the task of the second period.

First period (mid-September to mid-December)

Three mandatory courses (3x4 ECTS)
INF557: From the Internet to the IoT: The Fundamentals of Modern Computer Networking
INF558: Introduction to Cryptology
INF559: A Programmer's Introduction to Computer Architectures and Operating Systems

One elective course to be chosen among (4 ECTS):
INF553: Database Management Systems
INF554: Machine learning I

Second period (January to March)

Three mandatory courses:
INF568: Advanced Cryptology
INF565: Information Systems Security
INF586: Network Security

Alternatively, 1 or 2 courses from among:
INF563: Introduction to Information Theory

Third period (March to June/August)

Research project or company internship (INF59119 ECTS

domaines d'enseignement



Unités d'enseignement

UE Type d'enseignement Domaines Catégorie d'UE Volume horaire Responsables Site pédagogique
English English PA - C8
French Français PA - C8
HFC550 Science and Technology Studies PA - C8 Fabrizio Li Vigni
HFC551 The Myth of Paris (1830-Present) PA - C8 Antoine Guibal
HFC552 Aspects of Comparative Commercial Law PA - C8 Sabine Sultan
HFC553 Multicultural France PA - C8 Sarah Bouttier
HFC554 Introduction to French literature PA - C8 Joanne Brueton
HFC555 Economic Sociology PA - C8 Olivier Pilmis
HFC556 Introduction to French Politics PA - C8 Pierre-Marc Renaudeau
HFC557 Sociology of energy transitions: innovation, socio-techni... PA - C8 Claire Le Renard
HFC558 Sociology of Gender and Work PA - C8 Marie Des Neiges Léonard
HFC560 Paris in the Jazz Age PA - C8 Antoine Guibal
HFC560B Science and Technology Studies PA - C8 Fabrizio Li Vigni
HFC561 Introduction to French Cinema PA - C8 Isabelle Schaffner
HFC562 Introduction to French Music PA - C8 Chantal Schütz
HFC563 X-citing the spark PA - C8 Sarah Bouttier
HFC564 Introduction to French literature PA - C8 Joanne Brueton
HFC566 Introduction to French Politics PA - C8 Pierre-Marc Renaudeau
HFC567 Corporate Sustainability: How ethics & responsibility are... PA - C8 Alice Steenland
HFC567B Geopolitics PA - C8 Elsa SEN
HFC568 Sociology of Gender and Work PA - C8 Marie Des Neiges Léonard
HFC569 Philosophy of Science Fiction PA - C8 Jonathan Degenève
INF520 Projet de 3A de Cyber-sécurité PA - C8 François Morain
INF539 Refresher Course in Cybersecurity PA - C8 Alain Couvreur,
François Morain
INF553 Database Management Systems PA - C6B UE d'approfondissement, UE de projet. 36 Pierre Bourhis,
Benoît Groz,
Ioana Manolescu
INF557 From the Internet to the IoT: Fundamentals of Modern Comp... PA - C4B UE d'approfondissement, UE de base. Philippe Chassignet,
Thomas Clausen
INF558 Introduction to Cryptology PA - C5B UE d'approfondissement, UE de base. 36 François Morain
INF559 Architecture des ordinateurs et systèmes d'exploitation PA - C3B UE d'approfondissement, UE de base. Timothy BOURKE,
Théophile Bastian,
Francesco Zappa Nardelli
INF563 Théorie de l'information PA - C6B UE d'approfondissement, UE de base. Jean-Pierre Tillich
INF565 Information Systems Security Cours scientifique UE d'approfondissement, UE de base. Guenael Renault
INF568 Advanced Cryptology PA - C5B UE d'approfondissement, UE de base. Benjamin Smith
INF571 Distributed Computing PA - C7 UE d'approfondissement, UE de base. Bernadette Charron-Bost,
Jean-Marc Notin
INF571T Distributed Computing - Tutorat Tutorat
INF581 Advanced Topics in Artificial Intelligence PA - C4B UE d'approfondissement, UE de base. Jesse Read,
Nikolaos Tziortziotis,
Michalis Vazirgiannis
INF586 Sécurité des réseaux PA - C7 UE d'approfondissement, UE de base. Thomas Clausen
INF591 Informatique Stages Olivier Bournez
INF593 Internship for Cybersecurity (Year 1) Stages François Morain
INF611 Long project in Cybersecurity PA - C8 François Morain
INF636 Blockchain PA - C8 Daniel Augot,
Bernadette Charron-Bost
INF637 Reverse engineering vs Obfuscation PA - C8 Guenael Renault
INF638 Filtering architectures PA - C8 François Morain
INF646 Introduction to formal methods PA - C8 Pierre-Yves Strub
INF647 C-secure programming / System security PA - C8 François Morain
INF648 Embedded security: side-channel attacks; javacard. PA - C8 Guenael Renault
INF693 Internship for Cybersecurity (Year 2) PA - C8 François Morain
LGD01ANG Cultural Agility Langues Julie Mc Donald,
Chantal Schütz
LGD01ESP Actualidad en el mundo hispanico Langues Cristina Marinas,
Jean-Baptiste Thomas
LGD01FLE Langue française et civilisation (A1) Langues Julie André,
Christine Le Saux
LGD02ANG Scientific Writing Langues Divya Madhavan,
Chantal Schütz
LGD02ESP Espagnol Débutant - MSc&T Langues Cristina Marinas,
Tania Romero Barrios
LGD02FLE Langue française et civilisation (A2) Langues Julie André,
Pascale Ribardière
LGD03ANG Human Beans Langues Meghann Cassidy,
Chantal Schütz
LGD03FLE Langue française et civilisation (B1) Langues Julie André,
Olivier Crepellière
LGD04FLE Langue française et civilisation (C1/C2) Langues Julie André,
Antoine Guibal
MIE554 Business Models in the Digital Era PA - C7 Thierry Rayna
MIE556 Introduction to Marketing and Strategy PA - C6B Philippe Ginier-Gillet
MIE562 Case Studies on Innovation PA - C4B Philippe Ginier-Gillet
MIE564A Technology-based entrepreneurship and new business creation MIE - Cours Romain Buquet
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