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PA - C7 - PHY579 : Physics of the direct energy conversion and storage

Domaine > Physique.

Descriptif

PHY579- Direct Energy Conversion and Storage

A - Summary

Production and energy management systems are presently undergoing profound changes. While many options are still under discussion, all share a few constraints (and opportunities?), limits, set by the laws of nature and in particular those of physics.

The conversion, transport and storage of energy are the three main processes at work within the energy systems. Note that the conversion of energy is also a determining element to the end use of energy services, and thus a key factor for energy efficiency. In most traditional systems, non-direct thermal/ mechanical/ electrical conversion is obtained through a thermodynamic cycle between a hot and a cold source. Direct conversion systems are based on the gradient of characteristic intensive magnitude (pressure, temperature, mechanical potential, chemical potential, …) or on the flow of an extensive quantity (heat, matter, radiation, ...) which is converted into electrical potential gradient that is easily convertible into other useful forms of energy. The course will focus on systems in which the coupling between gradients does not involve mobile mechanical part. This is relevant for the energy transition, where large quantities of energy have to be converted and stored efficiently, as well as for the information society (Internet of Things) where quantities of micro-sources have to be deployed.

The educational objective of the course is to make the link between fundamental, very general, physical constraints and practical applications in the energy sector. In its form, it will include a part course, to present the fundamental concepts, and a part of homework through (i) documents to be analyzed in group and (ii) personal work.

In the first part of this course, we will present general principles implemented within devices for direct conversion of energy, or rather power conversion from non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In a second part, we will study the physical principles governing the operation of different converters: thermoelectric, photovoltaic, thermionic, electrochemical,...

Physical factors limiting the efficiency of these systems will be studied in detail. With the development of nanosciences, some conventional approaches had to be re-examined, and therefore the way quantum behavior allowed to revisit some of the approaches of conversion will be also introduced.

 Participants will explore one of these aspects through a personal work (individually or in pairs) on one or more scientific articles. This will be an opportunity for the student either to explore some physical limitations in conversion and storage, or look more in detail of specific conversion or storage systems. This work will be guided, and will include a short presentation to all students, and a longer discussion for the final examination.

The final exam will consist in an oral exam with question on the personnal work done on the selected topic.


B - Planning

Course

Classes

When

EA 1

Introduction, thermodynamics bases

Presentation of topics

18/09/2018

EA 2

Non EquilibriumThermodynamics: fluxes, forces, coupled fluxes

Articles : Endoreversibles Systems

25/09/2018

EA 3

Production of entropy, Dissipation, minima & maxima 

Articles : Constructal approach

02/10/2018

EA 4

Thermodynamics of light,

thermal &  electromagnetic conversion

Articles : Planck’s Law and generalisations, conversion of  photons

16/10/2018

EA 5

Thermoelectricity

Article : classical & mesoscopic approaches

23/10/2018

 

EA 6

Photovoltaics 

Guided work on personnal topics

06/11/2018

EA 7

Presentation (mid-term) of personnal work

Presentation (mid-term) of personnal work

13/11/2018

EA 8

Electrochemistry : conversion & storage

Articles : chemical systems for direct conversion, osmosis, batteries

20/11/2018

EA 9

Magnetohydrodynamics, Thermoionic and electrokinetic conversions

Article: limits to energy storage

27/11/2018

10

Examinations

 

 


C - Useful reading

- Physique de la conversion d’énergie
, Jean-Marcel Rax - EDP Sciences/CNRS Editions

- Physique statistique hors d’équilibre, Noëlle Pottier - EDP Sciences/CNRS Editions

- Thermodynamics of Solar Energy Conversion, Alexis De Vos - Wiley-VCH

- Sustainable Energy - without the hot air, David JC Mackay - http://www.withouthotair.com/

- Thermodynamics and an introduction to thermostatistics, H. Callen -  John Wiley & Sons

Course language : English
Credits ECTS : 4



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Pour les étudiants du diplôme Diplôme d'ingénieur de l'Ecole polytechnique

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